It was only after Napoleon III fell from power and the Third Republic was proclaimed that Hugo finally returned to his homeland in 1870, where he was promptly elected to the National Assembly and the Senate. vers le passé tournant un oeil d'envie, Hugo took on the role of a maverick and got little done in the Senate. Vita. His death generated intense national mourning. Vincent van Gogh ascribed the saying "Religions pass away, but God remains", actually by Jules Michelet, to Hugo. After that revolution, he preferred republicanism and freethought. Two days before dying, he left a note with these last words: "To love is to act". Although Napoleon III granted an amnesty to all political exiles in 1859, Hugo declined, as it meant he would have to curtail his criticisms of the government. , Victor Hugo, who said "A war between Europeans is a civil war", was an enthusiastic advocate for the creation of the United States of Europe. 1798) a Eugéne Hugo (nar. I wish to be buried in their hearse. The book also inspired a renewed appreciation for pre-Renaissance buildings, which thereafter began to be actively preserved. Finally, he was forced into exile because of his political views. Both were caught in adultery on 5 July 1845. He also composed operettas and opéras comiques including … , General Joseph-Leopold Hugo, father of Victor Hugo, Soon Hugo's father was called to Spain to fight the Peninsular War. Installments of the book sold out within hours and had enormous impact on French society. Oh ! Hugo, who was still banished from France, was unable to attend her funeral in Villequier where their daughter Léopoldine was buried. ... RÊVERIE. In February 1881 Hugo celebrated his 79th birthday. After this, he wrote many poems about his daughter's life and death. Quoi donc ! The Hague, between about Wednesday, 13 & about Monday, 18 December 1882", "Mercredi 23 juillet – 20h – Opéra Berlioz / Le Corum", "Victor Hugo's House in Pasaia – European Romanticisms in Association", "Caodaism: A Vietnamese-centred religion", http://www.miniweb.com.br/Literatura/Artigos/imagens/victor_hugo/face_oculta.pdf, Guernsey's Victor Hugo International Music Festival, Study of Victor Hugo for 'Le panorama du siècle', (Panorama of the Century), Translation of The legend of Victor Hugo by Paul Lafargue, The Century Was Two Years Old : Victor Hugo, The Hunchback of Notre Dame: Topsy Turvy Games, Disney's Animated Storybook: The Hunchback of Notre Dame, Les Misérables: Highlights from the Motion Picture Soundtrack, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Victor_Hugo&oldid=996525260, 19th-century French dramatists and playwrights, Members of the Chamber of Peers of the July Monarchy, Members of the Serbian Academy of Sciences and Arts, Members of the National Legislative Assembly of the French Second Republic, Writers who illustrated their own writing, CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles containing Spanish-language text, Articles with Encyclopædia Britannica links, Articles with French-language sources (fr), Wikipedia articles with BIBSYS identifiers, Wikipedia articles with CANTIC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with CINII identifiers, Wikipedia articles with KULTURNAV identifiers, Wikipedia articles with Léonore identifiers, Wikipedia articles with MusicBrainz identifiers, Wikipedia articles with RKDartists identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SELIBR identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SNAC-ID identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with Trove identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. A few years before his birth, the Bourbon Dynasty was overthrown during the French Revolution. laissez-moi ! He is buried in the Panthéon, in Paris. The First Republic rose and fell and the First French Empire rose under Napoléon Bonaparte. Je refuse l'oraison de toutes les Églises. Les Misérables proved popular enough with the masses that the issues it highlighted were soon on the agenda of the National Assembly of France. Victor Hugo, Alain Decaux, Éditions Perrin, 2001.  To honour the fact that he was entering his 80th year, one of the greatest tributes to a living writer was held. Because of his concern for the rights of artists and copyright, he was a founding member of the Association Littéraire et Artistique Internationale, which led to the Berne Convention for the Protection of Literary and Artistic Works. The novel was not as successful as his previous efforts, and Hugo himself began to comment on the growing distance between himself and literary contemporaries such as Flaubert and Émile Zola, whose realist and naturalist novels were now exceeding the popularity of his own work. In October 1807 the family rejoined Leopold, now Colonel Hugo, Governor of the province of Avellino. Hugo published his first novel the year following his marriage (Han d'Islande, 1823), and his second three years later (Bug-Jargal, 1826). In 1851, he lived in Belgium, in Brussels.He moved to Jersey in 1852.  Hugo had four other children called Léopoldine (28 August 1824), Charles (4 November 1826), François-Victor (28 October 1828) and Adèle (24 August 1830). His mother was an extreme Catholic Royalist. On the nomination of King Louis-Philippe, Hugo entered the Higher Chamber as a pair de France in 1845, where he spoke against the death penalty and social injustice, and in favour of freedom of the press and self-government for Poland. He was an atheist republican and considered Napoléon a hero. He had been in Brussels since 22 March 1871 when in the 27 May issue of the Belgian newspaper l’Indépendance Victor Hugo denounced the government's refusal to grant political asylum to the Communards threatened with imprisonment, banishment or execution. ISBN 978-0-09-951113-7; Christine Donougher. The youngest son of Joseph Léopold Sigisbert Hugo (1774–1828) a general in the Napoleonic army, and Sophie Trébuchet (1772–1821); the couple had two more sons: Abel Joseph (1798–1855) and Eugène (1800–1837). Madame Hugo and her children were sent back to Paris in 1808, where they moved to an old convent, 12 Impasse des Feuillantines, an isolated mansion in a deserted quarter of the left bank of the Seine. " Publication of Les Misérables went to the highest bidder. The Belgian publishing house Lacroix and Verboeckhoven undertook a marketing campaign unusual for the time, issuing press releases about the work a full six months before the launch. The Avenue Victor-Hugo in the XVIème arrondissement of Paris bears Hugo's name, and links the Place de l'Étoile to the vicinity of the Bois de Boulogne by way of the Place Victor-Hugo. To honor the fact that he was entering his eightieth year, one of the greatest tributes to a living writer was held. This page was last edited on 27 December 2020, at 03:13. Je verrai cet instant jusqu'à ce que je meure, Hugo, who had been a Member of the Chamber of Peers since April, avoided condemnation whereas his mistress had to spend two months in prison and six in a convent. Still, the book was well received, perhaps due to the earlier success of Les Misérables. É autor de Les Misérables e de Notre-Dame de Paris, entre diversas outras obras clássicas de fama e renome mundial. Adèle and Victor Hugo had their first child, Léopold, in 1823, but the boy died in infancy. I shout and I feel indignant and I cry. La rêverie est une modification de l'état de veille d'un individu sous la forme d'un détachement mental momentané de son environnement réel immédiat. Hugo was at the forefront of the Romantic literary movement with his play Cromwell and drama Hernani. Hugo, Victor, Choses vues, 1870–1885, Gallimard, 1972, p. 353. Victor-Marie Hugo was born on 26 February 1802 in Besançon in Eastern France. Pouchain, Gérard and Robert Sabourin (1992). He became a mentor to Victor and his brothers.  In Guernsey, every two years, the Victor Hugo International Music Festival attracts a wide range of musicians and the premiere of songs specially commissioned from such composers as Guillaume Connesson, Richard Dubugnon, Olivier Kaspar, and Thierry Escaich and based on Hugo's poetry. The pamphlets were banned in France but nonetheless had a strong impact there. He lived there again in 1872-1873. La dernière modification de cette page a été faite le 18 août 2018 à 20:01. From 1859, his exile was by choice.  Although for various reasons the opera closed soon after its fifth performance and is little known today, it has been recently enjoying a revival, both in a piano/song concert version by Liszt at the Festival international Victor Hugo et Égaux 2007 and in a full orchestral version to be presented in July 2008 at Le Festival de Radio France et Montpellier Languedoc-Roussillon. On 30 January 1876, he was elected to the newly created Senate. Victor Hugo (26. febrúar 1802, Besançon, Frakklandi – 22. maí 1885, París) var franskur ljóða-, skáldsagna-og leikritahöfundur og einn af áhrifamestu skáldum frönsku rómantíkurinnar.Þekktustu verk hans eru Vesalingarnir (Les Misérables) og Hringjarinn í Notre-Dame (Notre-Dame de Paris).Hann var íhaldssamur í æsku en varð síðar mikill stuðningsmaður lýðveldisstefnu. In Havana, Cuba, there is a park named after him. The school Lycée Victor Hugo was founded in his town of birth, Besançon in France. The pamphlets were banned in France, but nonetheless had a strong impact there. His most famous poem is undeniably "Demain, dès l'aube" (Tomorrow, at Dawn), in which he describes visiting her grave. , After 1872, Hugo never lost his antipathy towards the Catholic Church. She died at the age of 19, in 1843. “Hugo et la musique” in Pleins feux sur Victor Hugo, Arnaud Laster, Association Littéraire et Artistique Internationale, Berne Convention for the Protection of Literary and Artistic Works, La Esmeralda (only libretto of an opera written by Victor Hugo himself).  In 1859 he wrote a letter asking the United States government, for the sake of their own reputation in the future, to spare abolitionist John Brown's life, Hugo justified Brown's actions by these words: "Assuredly, if insurrection is ever a sacred duty, it must be when it is directed against Slavery. The Last Day of a Condemned Man published in 1829 analyses the pangs of a man awaiting execution; several entries of Things Seen (Choses vues), the diary he kept between 1830 and 1885, convey his firm condemnation of what he regarded as a barbaric sentence; on 15 September 1848, seven months after the Revolution of 1848, he delivered a speech before the Assembly and concluded, "You have overthrown the throne. Victor Hugo var far till Charles och François Victor Hugo Hugo himself considered it to be a precursor to his great work on social injustice, Les Misérables. "This elevated origin", he went on, "seems to have had effects on you so that your muse is now continually sublime. Both a graphomaniac and erotomaniac, he systematically reported his casual affairs using his own code, as Samuel Pepys did, to make sure they would remain secret. Petri Liukkonen. Emmanuel J. Chetelat, Les Occidentales ou lettres critiques sur les Orientales de M. Victor Hugo (1829), Paris, L’Arche du Livre, 1971. to indicate its success. The celebrations began on 25 June 1881, when Hugo was presented with a Sèvres vase, the traditional gift for sovereigns. When one of the authors dies, the rights should totally be granted back to the other, the people". Although he had requested a pauper's funeral he was awarded a state funeral by decree of President Jules Grévy.  Despite his popularity, Hugo lost his bid for re-election to the National Assembly in 1872. Hugo was a maverick and achieved little in the Senate. In June 1821 Sophie Trebuchet died, and Léopold married his long time mistress Catherine Thomas a month later. to his publisher, who replied with a single '!'. As Hugo's father was an officer, the family moved frequently. je ne l'ai plus ! It is a documentary short story about a real-life murderer who had been executed in France. ", Hugo & American Anti-Slavery Society 1860, "Victor Hugo's diary tells how Parisians dined on zoo animals", "Bicentenaire de Victor Hugo (1802-2002) - Sénat, French Government", "Vincent van Gogh to Theo van Gogh. (Adèle's biography inspired the movie The Story of Adele H.) His wife Adèle had died in 1868. Victor Hugo. par Victor Hugo. Napoléon became Emperor two years after Hugo's birth. It is popular worldwide and has been adapted for cinema, television, and stage shows. Le Dernier jour d'un condamné (The Last Day of a Condemned Man) had a big influence on later writers such as Albert Camus, Charles Dickens, and Fyodor Dostoevsky.  There Hugo rented a house for her near Hauteville House, his family home. He was confident that he would be offered the dictatorship, as shown by the notes he kept at the time: "Dictatorship is a crime. ", Hugo's death from pneumonia on 22 May 1885, at the age of 83, generated intense national mourning. As he got older he became more liberal and supported republicanism. Le grand bois jaunissant dore seul la colline. His second came three years later (Bug-Jargal, 1826). Hugo later titled himself as a viscount, and it was as "Vicomte Victor Hugo" that he was appointed a peer of France on 13 April 1845. Victor fell in love and secretly became engaged, against his mother's wishes, to his childhood friend Adèle Foucher. The Academicians refused to believe that he was only fifteen. They met in Châteaubriant, a few miles from Nantes in 1796 and married the following year. Hugo, Victor, Choses vues, 1870–1885, Gallimard, 1972. The initials S.B. He shares a crypt within the Panthéon with Alexandre Dumas, père and Émile Zola. He felt the Church was indifferent to the plight of the working class under the oppression of the monarchy. He frequented spiritism during his exile (where he participated also in many séances conducted by Madame Delphine de Girardin) and in later years settled into a rationalist deism similar to that espoused by Voltaire. He was born in 1802, in Besançon (in the Doubs department). Le poème Rêverie, écrit durant la jeunesse du poète, traduit son envie d’exotisme et de changement. Additionally, Hugo's beautiful poems have attracted an exceptional amount of interest from musicians, and numerous melodies have been based on his poetry by composers such as Berlioz, Bizet, Fauré, Franck, Lalo, Liszt, Massenet, Saint-Saëns, Rachmaninoff, and Wagner.. Claude Gueux appeared in 1834. Hugo is considered to be one of the greatest and best-known French writers. Le grand bois jaunissant dore seul la colline. Hugo himself particularly enjoyed the music of Gluck and Weber and greatly admired Beethoven, and rather unusually for his time, he also appreciated works by composers from earlier centuries such as Palestrina and Monteverdi. Today, Hugo’s work continues to stimulate musicians to create new compositions. A group of French academicians, particularly Étienne de Jouy, were fighting against the "romantic evolution" and had managed to delay Victor Hugo's election. that instant—too much for tears! After the Siege of Paris from 1870 to 1871, Hugo lived again in Guernsey from 1872 to 1873, and then finally returned to France for the remainder of his life. par les Amis de la Maison de Victor Hugo à Vianden, 2000. Oh ! In Academiam Francicam anno 1841 cooptatus est. He telegraphed the single-character message '?' He became secretly engaged to his childhood friend Adèle Foucher (1803-1868), against his mother's wishes. Never has her soul forsaken mine. Victor Hugo estis la lasta de tri infanoj. He was only five at the time, but he remembered the trip well. A Freethinker". when I cried out: "The child that I had just now-- Hang him! In 1871, after the death of his son Charles, Hugo took custody of his grandchildren Jeanne and Georges-Victor. Within a brief period, he suffered a mild stroke, his daughter Adèle was interned in an insane asylum, and his two sons died. Influencé, voire fascinés par les 1001 nuits, l'opulence des couleurs liées à … , Hugo's rationalism can be found in poems such as Torquemada (1869, about religious fanaticism), The Pope (1878, anti-clerical), Religions and Religion (1880, denying the usefulness of churches) and, published posthumously, The End of Satan and God (1886 and 1891 respectively, in which he represents Christianity as a griffin and rationalism as an angel). Your prayer knows its way better than you do". Où je criai : L'enfant que j'avais tout à l'heure, As the siege continued, and food became ever more scarce, he wrote in his diary that he was reduced to "eating the unknown". Jeho bratři byli Abel Joseph Hugo (nar. The City of Paris has preserved his residences Hauteville House, Guernsey and 6, Place des Vosges as museums. After a rendezvous with a young woman named Laetitia he would write Joie (Happiness) in his diary. More than one hundred operas are based on Hugo’s works and among them are Donizetti’s Lucrezia Borgia (1833), Verdi’s Rigoletto (1851) and Ernani (1844), and Ponchielli’s La Gioconda (1876). laissez-moi ! Rêverie. After leaving France, Hugo lived in Brussels briefly in 1851, and then moved to the Channel Islands, first to Jersey (1852–1855) and then to the smaller island of Guernsey in 1855, where he stayed until Napoleon III's fall from power in 1870. On 25 September 1870 during the Siege of Paris (19 September 1870 – 28 January 1871) Hugo feared the worst. I will see that instant until I die, It earned him a royal pension (money from the king) from Louis XVIII. Despite his personal loss, Hugo remained committed to the cause of political change. It was quickly translated into other languages across Europe. Les Contemplations and La Légende des siècles are his most famous poetry collections. Lo giorno se n’andava, e l’aer bruno.  Thereafter, he became increasingly involved in French politics. Hugo worked only on paper, and on a small scale; usually in dark brown or black pen-and-ink wash, sometimes with touches of white, and rarely with color. Though Hugo's popularity was on the decline at the time of its publication, many now consider Ninety-Three to be a work on par with Hugo's better-known novels.  When Hugo's sons Charles and François-Victor died, he insisted that they be buried without a crucifix or priest.  Victor moved in with his mother 18 rue des Petits-Augustins the following year and began attending law school. Œuvres complètes de Victor Hugo dirigée par Jacques Seebacher et Guy Rosa; en collaboration avec le Groupe Inter-universitaire de travail sur Victor Hugo-Paris VII. Throughout his life Hugo kept believing in unstoppable humanistic progress. Il est axé sur l’opposition entre l’aspect insipide du lieu réel et le désir d'évasion du poète. Ce poème nous décrit tout d’abord un paysage romantique, mélancolique, puis une rêverie propice à l’inspiration, tout cela autour d’un décor exotique, et de plusieurs types de natures. Victor Hugo learned a lot from these travels. 1. words by Victor Hugo 2. words by Victor Hugo 3. words by François Coppée 4. words by André Theuriet 5. words by Théodore de Banville 6. words by Théophile Gautier 7. words by Théodore de Banville; also choral version: No.  Le Matin published a slightly different version, "Here is the battle between day and night. par Victor Hugo 17 Lectures 0 Points 0 AVIS, CRITIQUES ET ANALYSES. His opposition to absolutism and his colossal literary achievement established him as a national hero. When Louis Napoleon (Napoleon III) grabbed complete power in 1851, establishing an anti-parliamentary constitution, Hugo openly declared him a traitor to France. Victor Marie Hugo (26 February 1802 – 22 May 1885) was a French poet, playwright, novelist, statesman and human rights activist. Victor-Marie Hugo : écrivain, dramaturge, poète, homme politique, académicien et intellectuel engagé, né le 26 février 1802 à Besançon et mort le 22 mai 1885 à Paris. Victor Hugo's first mature work of fiction was first published in February 1829 by Charles Gosselin without the author's name and reflected the acute social conscience that would infuse his later work. In a letter to American abolitionist Maria Weston Chapman, on 6 July 1851, Hugo wrote: Slavery in the United States! Two famous musicians of the 19th century were friends of Hugo: Berlioz and Liszt. Most large French towns and cities have a street or square named after him. Oh ! Exclamation Mark! She is my widow." He was not only revered as a towering figure in literature, he was a statesman who shaped the Third Republic and democracy in France. No. Hugo worked only on paper, and on a small scale; usually in dark brown or black pen-and-ink wash, sometimes with touches of white, and rarely with colour. Hugo's advocacy to abolish the death penalty was renowned internationally. Today, Hugo's work continues to stimulate musicians to create new compositions. Arnaud Laster, L'Avant-Scène Opéra, no. He played an important part in the Romantic movement in France. In 1849, he broke with the conservatives when he gave a noted speech calling for the end of misery and poverty. One of his most famous poem is probably Demain, dès l'aube. Hugo's popularity as a playwright grew with subsequent plays, such as Marion Delorme (1831), The King Amuses Himself (1832), and Ruy Blas (1838). His parents had different political and religious views. Woe to anyone who harms France! This is a crime I am going to commit", but he felt he had to assume that responsibility. However, he enjoyed sharing his drawings with his family and friends, often in the form of ornately handmade calling cards, many of which were given as gifts to visitors when he was in political exile. He also composed or published some of his best work during his period in Guernsey, including Les Misérables, and three widely praised collections of poetry (Les Châtiments, 1853; Les Contemplations, 1856; and La Légende des siècles, 1859). , In 1810 Hugo's father was created Count Hugo de Cogolludo y Sigüenza by then King of Spain Joseph Bonaparte, though it seems that the Spanish title was not legally recognized in France. His faithful mistress, Juliette Drouet, died in 1883, only two years before his own death. Les Contemplations and La Légende des siècles are his most famous poetry collections. One of the effects of the novel was to make the inhabitants of Paris restore the neglected Cathedral of Notre Dame, which was attracting thousands of tourists who had read the popular novel. I am still exasperated and violent. Hugo, Victor, Choses vues 1870–1885, Gallimard, 1972. , For more than seven years, Léonie d’Aunet, who was a married woman, was involved in a love relationship with Hugo. Hugo's father was an officer. He also composed or published some of his best work during his period in Guernsey, including Les Misérables, and three widely praised collections of poetry (Les Châtiments, 1853; Les Contemplations, 1856; and La Légende des siècles, 1859). He sought a wide variety of women of all ages, be they courtesans, actresses, prostitutes, admirers, servants or revolutionaries like Louise Michel for sexual activity. For example, Hugo's novel against capital punishment, The Last Day of a Condemned Man, was adapted into an opera by David Alagna, with a libretto by Frédérico Alagna and premièred by their brother, tenor Roberto Alagna, in 2007. Anne Marie Rodde,Noel Lee Camille Saint-Saëns, Mélodies ℗ Etcetera Released on: 1993-03-02 Auto-generated by YouTube. Reverie definition, a state of dreamy meditation or fanciful musing: lost in reverie. Hugo's eldest and favourite daughter, Léopoldine, died aged 19 in 1843, shortly after her marriage to Charles Vacquerie. ISBN 978-0141393599 Victor Hugo contre la peine de mort, Jérôme Picon et Isabel Violante, avant-propos de … […] Now overthrow the scaffold. Perhaps he also was upset by the frequency with which his work appeared on the Church's list of banned books. However, the novel was not as successful as his previous efforts, and Hugo himself began to comment on the growing distance between himself and literary contemporaries such as Flaubert and Émile Zola, whose realist and naturalist novels were now exceeding the popularity of his own work. The 1848 Revolution made Hugo rebel against his Catholic Royalist education. The school Lycée Victor Hugo was founded in his town of birth, Besançon in France. Hugo, Victor, Choses vues, Gallimard, 1972, Peace Congress, 2d, Paris, 1849. In particular, Hugo’s plays, in which he rejected the rules of classical theatre in favour of romantic drama, attracted the interest of many composers who adapted them into operas. However, in Pauvert's published archives, he states strongly that "any work of art has two authors: the people who confusingly feel something, a creator who translates these feelings, and the people again who consecrate his vision of that feeling. Many years after their separation, Hugo made a point of supporting her financially. Dans le drame romantique, l'amour et la mort sont liés. In his youth, he called himself as a Catholic and professed respect for Church hierarchy and authority. His first collection of poetry (Odes et poésies diverses) was published in 1822 when he was only 20 years old and earned him a royal pension from Louis XVIII. , Since Hugo's father was an officer in Napoleon's army, the family moved frequently from posting to posting, Sophie had three children in four years. For example, Hugo’s novel against capital punishment, The Last Day of a Condemned Man, has recently been adapted into an opera by David Alagna (libretto by Frédérico Alagna). On 30 January 1876 Hugo was elected to the newly created Senate. Other speeches called for universal suffrage and free education for all children. After three unsuccessful attempts, Hugo was finally elected to the Académie française in 1841, confirming his position in the world of French arts and letters. When Hugo returned to Paris in 1870, the country hailed him as a national hero.  He describes his shock and grief in his poem À Villequier: Hélas ! Hiding in a chapel at the back of the garden, was Victor Fanneau de La Horie, who had conspired to restore the Bourbons and had been condemned to death a few years earlier. At the time; Victor Hugo was travelling with his mistress in the south of France. Hugo is venerated as a saint in the Vietnamese religion of Cao Đài, a new religion established in Vietnam in 1926. His mother, Sophie, went to Italy with her husband who was a governor of a province near Naples. Because of his concern for the rights of artists and copyright, he was a founding member of the Association Littéraire et Artistique Internationale, which led to the Berne Convention for the Protection of Literary and Artistic Works. It is reported that Hugo often drew with his left hand or without looking at the page, or during Spiritualist séances, in order to access his unconscious mind, a concept only later popularized by Sigmund Freud.  Letters addressed to the author were from then on labelled "To Mister Victor Hugo, In his avenue, Paris". Title Composer Hahn, Reynaldo: I-Catalogue Number I-Cat. During a literary career that spanned more than sixty years, he wrote abundantly in an exceptional variety of genres: lyrics, satires, epics, philosophical poems, epigrams, novels, history, critical essays, political speeches, funeral orations, diaries, letters public and private, as well as dramas in verse and prose. " Yet he made a point of offering his support to members of the Commune subjected to brutal repression. From 1830 to 1837 Adèle had an affair with Charles-Augustin Sainte Beuve, a reviewer and writer.. "), 1866. Avenue Victor-Hugo, in Shawinigan, Quebec, Canada, was named to honor him. Victor married Adèle the following year. But Hugo’s first successful novel Notre-Dame de Paris (The Hunchback of Notre Dame), which was published in 1831.
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